Category Archives: Salvation

Substitution – The unlimited substitutionary atonement for sin. Christ bore our sins in His own body…

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God’s righteousness and justice demand that he execute the sentence He has decreed upon sin. ”The soul that sinneth it shall die . . .” (Ezekiel 18:20) ”The wages of sin is death . . .” (Romans 6:23) This means that judgment must fall on every human being, because we are all sinners. However, the word of God tells of that our judgment has, in fact fallen on another person, the Lord Jesus Christ. It is the fact of Christ’s taking the punishment that was meant for us that is known as the doctrine of substitution.

You can see a simple example of the idea of substitution in Mark 15:7. Barabbas was guilty of several crimes, including murder and insurrection. The Roman government had already condemned him to death by crucifixion. But Barabbas never saw his cross! Because Jesus took his place on the cross. In fact, Christ was Barabbas’s substitute both physically and spiritually.

The doctrine of substitution describes both the nature of Christ’s death and the method God uses in providing salvation for all of us. The guilt of the sinner is never denied. Substitution is taught in the Bible in a variety of ways.

Substitution is Taught by Old Testament Sacrifices

There are six steps involved in making a sacrifice. The first three steps were taken by the sinner for whom the sacrifice was being made.

  • He selected and presented the proper sacrificial animal, Lev. 1:2
  • He identified with the sacrifice by placing his hand on its head, Lev. 1:4
  • Then, he killed the animal, Lev. 1:9

Three actions were then performed by the priest:

  • He skinned the animal sacrifice and cut it into pieces, Lev. 1:6
  • He prepared the altar, Lev. 1:7
  • He burned the sacrifice on the altar, Lev. 1:9

The purpose of the sacrifice was to gain the sinner’s acceptance. The sacrifice was made that it may be accepted for him to make atonement on his behalf. The sacrifice made a covering and gained acceptance before the Lord.

Substitution is Taught by Direct Prophecy

The portion of Isaiah from chapter 40 to chapter 66 is the heart of the Old Testament teaching about the Messiah. It begins with a prophecy of the ministry of John the Baptist in Isa. 40:3-5, and it concludes with the new heavens and new earth in Isa. 66:22. The general lines of truth are as follows.

Summary of the Messiah’s Work, Isa. 52:13-15

Jehovah (one name for God) introduces the Messiah with the words “Behold, my servant…” The word behold calls out attention to important matters. It says “wake up, don’t miss this.” The word servant is a reference to the Messiah. The New Testament clearly shows the Lord Jesus to be the one who fulfills this prophecy. When Philip was talking with the Ethiopian eunuch as he read this very passage in Isaiah, the issue was raised as to the identity of the servant. Philip took this passage and preached Jesus to him (Acts 8:26-35).

Jehovah made a triple declaration about the Messiah. First, He said that the Messiah would be successful in His work. The passage says that He shall deal prudently, the word meaning to act intelligently so as to succeed. It refers to effective action. It is placed before the words my servant and is em­phatic.

Jehovah then says that the Messiah will be glorified. “He shall be exalted..”, or a more literal translation, “He shall rise.” This is the beginning of His glory and is fulfilled in his resurrection. Then, extolled, that is, he will raise himself, the continuation of phase one and fulfilled in the ascension of Christ. Then, he shall be very high, a phrase in which the Hebrew uses a stative verb which refers to a fixed position. This is fulfilled in the session of Christ (Heb. 1:3), where He is seated at the Father’s right hand.

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Propitiation – Jesus Christ is our Mercy Seat, our place of propitiation!

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Propitiation is the work of the Lord Jesus Christ by which He appeases the wrath of God and conciliates Him who would otherwise be offended by our sin and would demand that we pay the penalty for it.

Propitiation is translated from the Greek word (hilasterion), meaning “that which expiates or propitiates” or “the gift which procures propitiation”. The word is also used in the New Testament for the place of propitiation, the “mercy seat.” (Heb. 9:5). There is frequent similar use of hilasterion in the Septuagint. Ex. 25:18 ff. The mercy seat was sprinkled with atoning blood on the Day of Atonement (Lev. 16:14), representing that the righteous sentence of the Law had been executed, changing a judgment seat into a mercy seat (Heb. 9:11-15; compare with “throne of grace” in Heb. 4:14-16; place of communion, Ex. 25:21-22).

Another Greek word, (hilasmos), is used for Christ as our propitiation. 1 John 2:2; 4:10, and for “atonement” in the Septuagint (Lev. 25:9). The thought in the Old Testament sacrifices and in the New Testament fulfillment is that Christ completely satisfied the just demands of a holy God for judgment on sin by His death on the cross.

God, foreseeing the cross, is declared righteous in forgiving sins in the Old Testament period as well as in justifying sinners under the new covenant (Rom. 3:25, 26; cf. Ex. 29:33, note). Propitiation is not the placating of a vengeful God but, rather, it is the satisfying the righteousness of a holy God, thereby making it possible for Him to show mercy without compromising His righteousness or justice.

The Hebrew kaphar, means “to propitiate, to atone for sin”. According to scripture, the sacrifice required by the Law only covered the individual’s sin making the sin offering and secured personal divine forgiveness. The Old Testament sacrifices never removed man’s sin. “It is not possible…”, Heb. 10:4. The Israelite’s offering implied confession of sin in anticipation of Christ’s sacrifice which did, finally, “put away” the sins “done previously in the forbearance of God”. Rom. 3:25; Heb. 9:15, 26. The word “atonement” does not occur in the New Testament; the word in Rom. 5:11 is “reconciliation”.

The beginning of the subject of propitiation is found far back in the Bible, back to the designing of the tabernacle in the wilderness, the tent which God had the people of Israel set up which would be the center of His presence on earth.

The tabernacle occupies a large portion of Scripture, sixteen chapters in the book of Exodus and the whole book of Leviticus. Every feature of the tabernacle, of the worship carried out there, of the priestly life and duties, of the vestments of the priests, the sacrifices, the feast days–every feature was vitally important and designed by the Lord for eternal purposes. It is very important for the church age believer to have a good working knowledge of the Levitical system in order to appreciate fully the work of Christ and the plan of God as they have been instituted in the world.

There was great stress on the blueprint of the tabernacle.

Exodus 25:8-9 “And let them make me a sanctuary; that I may dwell among them. According to all that I show thee, after the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of all the instruments thereof, even so shall ye make it.”

The pattern was given to Moses on Mt. Sinai, along with the Law. Read Hebrews 8:1–6. The tabernacle was a symbolical expression of spiritual truth.

The congregation of the Jews did not go beyond the courtyard of the tabernacle. They made offerings only at the brazen altar; and only the priests were allowed to go anyplace else in the tabernacle. The tabernacle was the dwelling place of God on earth, and God was unapproachable by sinful men. The main lessons being taught had to do with the perfection of God and the sinfulness of man.

The Furniture of the Tabernacle

Brazen Altar

This altar was the be­ginning of a person’s approach to God. Animal sacrifices made there taught that substitutionary sacrifice is the first step toward fellowship with God. When a person passed outside the gate of the tabernacle, the only thing that he could see was the smoke rising from the burnt offerings, and through the one gate could be seen the altar of sacrifice and the blood being shed. Everything else was hidden from view by the curtain. This was a continuous reminder of “the Lamb of God that takes away the sin of the world.” The only thing the unbeliever can ever see is the Gospel, the good news of Christ’s substitutionary sacrifice for us.

A description of the brazen altar is found in Ex. 27:1–8 and Ex. 38:1-7.

The Laver

Here the priests cleaned their hands and arms before performing any service or act of worship (Ex. 30:17-21). It was placed between the brazen altar and the tent of worship (the holy place). This cleansing symbolized the spiritual cleansing which is essential to both worship and service.

The Candlesticks

These illustrated the need for illumination, the light of the world. See Ex. 25:31–40; 37:17–24.

The Table of Bread

An illustration of the need for spiritual food. See Ex. 25:23–30; 37:10–16.

The Altar of Incense

From Ex. 30:1–10, this piece of tabernacle furniture illustrated the need for acceptable worship and prayer. No animals were offered on this altar. The offering was an incense offering, indicat­ing that which is pleasing to God, divine good (gold, silver, and precious stones). The fire for the altar of incense came from the brazen altar, indicating that worship can only come after salvation. No strange fire was allowed; and Nadab and Abihu died for disobeying this rule.

The Veil

The veil symbolized the barrier between God and man; only the high priest could enter the holy of holies, and that only once a year on the day of atonement, to offer the blood on the mercy seat of the ark of the covenant.

The Ark of the Covenant

The ark of the covenant was located in the holy of holies of the Tabernacle. It was made of acacia wood and overlaid with gold. Its dimensions were 50 inches long by 30 inches wide by 30 inches deep. The ark was a picture of Christ bearing our sins, the box part representing Christ. The wood illustrated the humanity of Christ, the gold represented His deity.

Inside the ark were three objects representing sin (Num. 17:8, 10; Heb. 9:4). The tables of the Law represented sin in the sense of violation or transgression of God’s order. The pot of manna represented rejection of God’s provision. Aaron’s rod represented revolt against God’s authority.

Over the top of the box was a lid of solid gold, the mercy seat (or throne). Over each end of the mercy seat was a gold cherub, the highest ranking angel. The first cherub represented the absolute righteousness of God, and the second cherub represented the justice of God. Together they represented the holiness of God. The cherubs faced toward each other, wings outstretched towards each other, and looked down at the mercy seat. “Righteousness” looks down and condemns (Rom. 3:23). “Justice” looks down and assesses a penalty.

Once a year, on the Day of Atonement, the high priest went into the holy of holies twice; once to make atonement for his own sins, and then to do so for the people. He sprinkled blood from the sacrifice on the ark, on the top of the mercy seat, between the cherubs. This was a graphic illustration of God’s grace provision for sin. “Righteousness” looks at the blood of the animal, which represents the spiritual death of Christ on the cross, His substitutionary atonement, and is satisfied. “Justice” looks at the blood and is satisfied that the penalty paid for sin was sufficient, teaching that Christ was judged and paid the penalty for us.

Therefore, the ark speaks of redemption – Christ paid for our sins, paid our ransom, to purchase us from the slave market of sin.

So we have in the ark and the mercy seat a picture of God’s satisfaction with the work of Jesus Christ known as propitiation.

Now, the Hebrew word for mercy seat is kapporeth. The Greek word used in the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament is hilasterion. This same Greek word is found in the New Testament in Rom. 3:25; Heb. 9:5; 1 John 2:2; and 4:10 and is translated “mercy seat” or “place of propitiation”. So there is a direct relationship between the mercy seat in the tabernacle and the doctrine of propitiation.

Summary

Because of propitiation, God is free to love the believer without compromising either His righteousness or justice. The thought in the Old Testament sacrifices and in the New Testament fulfillment is that Christ completely satisfied the just demands of a holy God for judgment of sin.

Propitiation is not the placating of a vengeful God; but it is, rather, the satisfying of the righteousness of a holy God making it possible for Him to show mercy without compromise. Propitiation demonstrates the consistency of God’s character in saving the worst sinners. Propitiation reconciles man to God. This means that sin is no longer the issued between man and God. The only issue, for the Old Testament and New Testament believers, is “believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved.” (Acts 16:31)

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Reconciliation – How God the Father changes (reconciles) us to His own standards and righteousness.

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The word reconciliation refers to the process of changing something thoroughly and adjusting it to something else that is a standard. For example, when you adjust your watch to a time signal, you are reconciling the watch to a time standard. Or when you reconcile your checkbook, the standard to which you match it is the bank’s record of your account. On rare occasions the bank must reconcile its accounts to yours.

In the Bible, reconciliation is the word used to refer to the process by which God changes human beings and adjusts them to the standard of His perfect character. Rom. 11:15 refers to the “reconciling of the world”. The Greek word used here is the noun καταλλαγη(katallagei). This word is also used in Rom. 5:11, “…but we also joy in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the reconciliation.” Note that man is not active in reconciliation and provides nothing toward reconciliation. Read also 2 Cor. 5:17-21.

Reconciliation also appears in the verb form καταλλασσω (katallasso), meaning “to reconcile”. It is used in the active voice in 2 Cor. 5:18 with the meaning of “reconciling someone to someone else.” In this case, God reconciles us to Himself, through the Lord Jesus Christ. This verb in the passive voice means “to be reconciled” or “to become reconciled”, and it is used in the case of man’s relationship to God in Rom. 5:10 and 2 Cor. 5:20. The passive voice is also used in cases of reconciliation between people, as in 1 Cor. 7:11 and Matt. 5:24.

Another Greek word translated “to reconcile” is ιλασκομαι (hilaskomai), meaning “to reconcile” in the sense of providing propitiation, as in Luke 18:13. It is used of the activity of the Lord Jesus Christ as high priest in making reconciliation for His people, Heb. 2:17.

Rom. 5:6-11 points out that the whole world needs to be reconciled to God. Note the adjectives in this passage which stress this need: “ungodly”, “without strength”, “sinners”, “enemies”.

Reconciliation is an important consideration in the study of the doctrine of The Barrier. By the death of Christ on the cross, the world is thoroughly changed in its relationship to God, Eph. 2:14-18 and Col. 1:20-22. That is, through the cross of Christ the world is so altered in its position respecting the character and judgment of God that God does not now impute sin to human beings. The world is therefore rendered savable!

Because the position of the world before God is completely changed through the substitutionary atonement of Christ, God’s attitude toward man can no longer be the same. God can now deal with souls in the light of Christ’s work.

Notice that God is never said to be reconciled to man. God is immutable, so He does not change. Reconciliation is only possible in one direction. What sometimes seems to be a change in God is actually an unchanged attitude of God viewing a reconciled man. God, having how accepted Christ’s work, is able to continue to be just toward man. He can now offer salvation.

A person profits from reconciliation by faith in the Gospel. Once he becomes a believer, a person can partake in all of the blessings which accompany his position in Christ, including the privileges accruing from reconciliation.

The believer, in turn, has the responsibility of becoming a minister of reconciliation, 2 Cor. 5:18–19. The truth of reconciliation is one of the key salvation doctrines to be used in witnessing to those without Christ.

Related doctrines to study: Propitiation, The Barrier and Furniture of the Tabernacle

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Redemption – A study of the doctrine of redemption, God’s special intervention for the salvation of mankind.

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Redemption is a term used in the Bible to refer to the special intervention of God for the salvation of mankind. This use of the word deals with the work of Jesus Christ on the cross in which He paid the price to purchase human beings and set them free from their slavery to sin. On account of Christ’s substitutionary atonement, He is called the redeemer.

There are other ideas closely related to the primary concept of redemption which relate to the necessity for redemption and its various aspects and to the effects of the ministry of God’s grace in the life of the Christian believer.

Old Testament Background and Typology

Redemption of Firstborn Sons, Firstlings of the Flock, First Fruits

The word “redemption” in the Old Testament is the translation of the Hebrew word pädäh, meaning “to deliver” or “to sever”. It was continuously stressed to the Israelites that they belonged to Jehovah because He had redeemed them (severed them from bondage in Egypt) and had provided the land of Canaan for them to use as a gift from God and for His glory. For this reason, all Israel owed their lives and their service to God, in effect making the whole nation a kingdom of priests, at least in spirit.

However, only Levi and the descendants of his tribe, who became known as the priestly tribe, were actually set apart for the service of the tabernacle. Everyone else from the eleven other tribes was to be redeemed, or purchased, from service by redeeming the firstborn of both men and animals.

A son was considered firstborn if he was the first son born to his mother. If a man had more than one wife, each wife could have a firstborn son. Each firstborn son was presented to the Lord on the 40th day after his birth and redeemed by a payment of five shekels of silver to the priests (Num. 18:16: Ex. 13:15; Luke 2:27).

The firstlings of oxen, sheep and goats were to be brought to the sanctuary within a year and eight days after their birth, and sacrificed (Num. 18:17). The firstborn of an ass, which was an unclean animal, was redeemed by sacrificing a sheep in its place; or, if not redeemed in this manner, was put to death itself (Ex. 13:12 ff; 34:20). Later, the law provided that the ass could be redeemed with money, the amount to be determined by the market value of the ass plus twenty percent, according to the priest’s valuation (Lev. 27:27; Num. 18:15).

The firstfruits of the harvest were sacred to Jehovah because He is the Lord of the soil (Ex. 23:19). These were given to the priest to be presented as an offering. The whole congregation was required to offer an annual thanksgiving offering at harvest time by presenting a firstfruits sheaf at the Passover. These were not to be burned but were to be given to the priests for their use, with the provision that only those priests who were ceremonially clean could eat the firstfruits. The amount of offering of firstfruits was not specified by the Law but was left to each person’s discretion.

Later in Jewish history, the children of Israel began to be called the redeemed of the Lord, after they had been set free from the Babylonian captivity (; Isa. 51:11). The two verses do not fit this context.

The Kinsman Redeemer

According to the laws regarding punishment and retribution for crime, when a person was assaulted, robbed or murdered, it fell to the nearest kinsman to bring the criminal to justice and to protect the lives and property of relatives. This obligation was called “redeeming and the man who was responsible for fulfilling this duty was known as a redeemer (Heb. go-el). The job of redeemer would fall to full brothers first, then to uncles who were the father’s brothers, then to full cousins, and finally to the other blood relatives of the family (Lev. 25:48). The kinsman redeemer of the Old Testament was a type of the Lord Jesus Christ as redeemer. There were four requirements for the redeemer, both in the type and in Christ:

  1. The redeemer must be a near kinsman. To fulfill this Christ took on human form.
  2. The redeemer must be able to redeem. The price of man’s redemption was the blood of Christ (Acts 20:28; 1 Pet. 1:18-19).
  3. The redeemer must be willing to redeem (Heb. 10:4-10). Christ was willing to be our redeemer.
  4. The redeemer must be free from that which caused the need for redemption; that is, the redeemer cannot redeem himself. This was true of Christ, because He needed no redemption.

READ Ruth 3:9-13; 4:1-11.

The nation of Israel as a whole required a redeemer to redeem the lands which had been taken over by foreign powers, so they looked to Jehovah to become their go-el. The period of exile gave an even greater force and meaning to the term redeemer than it had before; and the book of Isaiah contains nineteen of the thirty-three Old Testament references to God as Israel’s covenant redeemer.

Redemption in the New Testament

Slavery to Sin

In the New Testament we see that all people are slaves because all are sold under sin and in spiritual bondage.

Rom. 7:14, “For we know that the law is spiritual; but I am carnal, sold under sin.”

Acts 8:23 uses the phrase “the bond of iniquity”.

READ John 8:31-36

READ Romans 6:12-18

See also Rom. 7:23; 2 Tim. 2:26; 2 Pet. 2:19.

Furthermore, all people are helplessly condemned to die.

Ezek. 18:4, “Behold, all souls are mine, saith the Lord. As the soul of the father, so also the soul of the son is mine. The soul that sins, it shall die.”

1 Cor. 15:22, “As in Adam all die…”

See also John 3:18, 36; Rom. 3:19; Gal. 3:10.

The Principle of Redemption

The principle of redemption, then, is the concept of bondage to the slavery of sin and freedom from its domination (John 8:31-36). To be redeemed means to be purchased from slavery.

The Greek word (lutroo), means “to release for ransom; to liberate; to redeem”. It comes from the word (luo) meaning “to loosen; to unbind; to set at liberty”. It is used in

1 Pet. 1:18,19, “Forasmuch as you know that you were not redeemed (lutroo) with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by tradition from your fathers; but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot.”

Titus 2:14, “Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem (lutroo) us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.”**

The noun (lutron) means “the price paid; the ransom”, as in

Matt. 20:28, “Even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom (lutron) for many.”

Jesus Christ purchased our freedom; and His blood is the payment for the redemption. Psalm 34:22; 1 Peter 1:18,19; Gal. 3:13; Eph. 1:7; 1 John 1:7.

Therefore, Jesus Christ is man’s redeemer, and as such He is divinely appointed. The redemption that He brought represents both His own love and that of the Father for the whole world.

The word (agoradzo) means “to buy; to redeem; to acquire by paying ransom”. Derived from agora, “marketplace”.

1 Cor. 6:20, “For you are bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your body, and in you spirit, which are God’s.” This is analogous to the OT idea in which the Israelites owed their very existence to God.

Rev. 5:9, “And they sang a new song, saying, You are worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for you were slain, and have redeemed us to God by your blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation.”

See also 2 Pet. 2:1; Rev. 14:3.

The word (exagoradzo) means “to buy out of the hands of a person; to redeem; to set free.”

Gal. 3:13, “Christ has redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangs on a tree.”

The word (apolutrosis) means “to dismiss for ransom paid; redemption”.

1 Cor. 1:30, “But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption.”

**Rom. 3:23-24, “For all have sinned and come short of the glory of God; being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus.”

Eph. 1:7, “In whom we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of sins according to the riches of His grace.”

Heb. 9:15, “And for this cause he is the mediator of the new testament, that by means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first testament, they which are called might receive the promise of eternal inheritance.”

Rom. 8:22-23, “For we know that the whole creation groans and travails in pain together until not. And not only they, but ourselves also, which have the firstfruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, the redemption of our body.”

**Eph. 1:13-14, “In whom you also trusted, after that you heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation: in whom after you believed, you were sealed with that Holy Spirit of promise, which is the earnest of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession, unto the praise of his glory.”

Some Implications of the Doctrine of Redemption

Redemption is the basis of our eternal inheritance. See Eph. 1:13,14 and Heb. 9:15 above.

Redemption is the basis of justification. Rom. 3:23, 24 (above).

Redemption includes the total forgiveness of sins; Eph. 1:7; Col. 1:14.

Redemption results in adoption.

Gal. 4:4–6, “But when the fullness of time was come, God sent forth His Son, made of a woman, made under the Law, To redeem them that were under the Law, that we might receive the adoption of sons. And because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.”

The doctrine of redemption is used to orient believers in time of stress.

Job 19:25, “I know that my Redeemer liveth…”

At the point of redemption we can have peace of mind, stability, a relaxed mental attitude by knowing the doctrine and that God has paid for and provided for everything.

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Justification – Outline of the doctrine of Justification.

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Definition:Justification is God’s act of grace by which He pardons a sinner and accepts him as righteous on account of the atoning work of Jesus Christ on the cross. Remission of sin, absolution from guilt, and freedom from punishment are part of justification.

In order to be justified, a person must be given a righteousness equivalent to God’s perfect righteousness. Hence, imputation precedes justification. Imputation is the charging to the account of one person something which properly belongs to another. The Lord Jesus Christ shares his perfect righteousness with the believer, Rom. 3:22; 4:11; 9:30-32; 4:4, 5.

Because righteousness has been imputed to us, God calls us “justified”. “Abraham believed God and it was imputed to him for righteousness.” Hence, imputation of righteousness on the basis of faith brings about justification.

The means of justification is redemption,

Rom. 3:24. “Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus.”

Justification produces reconciliation. Rom. 5:1

Because God the Father is satisfied (propitiation), we are freely justified.

Justification occurs at the moment of a person’s faith in Jesus Christ, Rom. 3:28; 5:1; Gal.3:24.

Justification does not occur through keeping the Law of Moses, Gal. 2:16.

Justification during the believer’s lifetime is described in James 2:21-25. This is the function of the faith rest principle in living the Christian way of life under grace.

The principle of temporal justification is found in Matt. 11:19 and Luke 7:35.

Related Topics: Reconciliation, Propitiation, The Barrier and Imputation

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Imputation – How God the Father “credits” our sin to Christ and His righteousness to us.

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Introduction

Imputation is a wonderful principle of the plan of God, and you have been involved with imputation since the day you were saved.

To impute means “to set something to one’s account.”

In the Bible imputation is used as a legal term in several different ways. For example, when Paul sent Onesimus back to Philemon, he told Philemon that if Onesimus had incurred any debts they were to be put on Paul’s account (Philemon 17,18).

When a groom says to a bride “with all my worldly good I thee endow”, he is talking about imputation, placing to the bride’s account all of his property.

The Greek verb for imputation is logizomai. It is used more than 40 times in the New Testament, ten times in Romans 4 alone, the imputation chapter. In the KJV of Romans 4 it’s translated “counted” in 4:3, 5, “reckoned” in 4:4, 10, and “imputed” in 4:6, 8, 11, 22, 23 and 24.

Three Imputations in the Bible

In the first type of imputation, God imputes to us what actually belongs to us in the first place. Where Romans 5:12 says that “death passed upon (logizomai) all men, for that all have sinned”, death is part of our spiritual heritage from Adam. Death has been reckoned to our account. Adam’s sins was not his alone, but it was placed on every person’s account, on the debit side, you might say.

In the second type of imputation, God the Father imputes to the Lord Jesus Christ that which does not belong to him. 2 Cor. 5:21 says that “He (Christ) was made to be sin for us, even though He knew no sin…”. This is the Bible concept of substitution; Christ died for our sins, not his own. Isaiah 53:4-6. The verse does not say that Christ became a sinner, but that sin was set to his account that was not his.

The third type of imputation occurs when God imputes (credits) to the sinner what is not actually his. Again, 2 Cor. 5:21, “that we might be made the righteousness of God in Him.” Here, the actual perfect righteousness of God is credited to us. This righteousness, which is placed on the credit side of our ledger, is known as imputed righteousness or justification.

God declares men to be righteous on the basis of faith. Read Romans 4:3. “Abraham believed God and it was counted to him (logizomai) for righteousness”. God makes men righteous on the basis of practice by the Word (John 17:17) and the filling of the Holy Spirit.

logizomai from the Lexicons

A study of various Greek lexicons shows that logizomai has some very interesting uses in the Bible. If you will study each of these verses in the context, it will help you to understand the concept better, and you will find a lot of practical application for this doctrine. Here are three principal meanings for logizomai in the Bible and in other sources of New Testament Greek studies.

To reckon; to calculate

The word means “to count, to take something into account” in 1 Cor. 13:5 (cf. Zech. 8:17); 2 Cor. 5:19; Rom. 4:8 (cf. Ps. 32:2); and 2 Tim. 4:16.

It is used in Romans 4:4; 4:6; and 4:11 in the sense of “crediting.”

It means “to credit something to someone” in Romans 4:3, 5, 9 and 22; Gal. 3:16; James 2:23 (cf. Romans 4:10, 23 ff; Gen. 15:6; Ps. 106:31).

In the commercial world of New Testament times, logizomai was a technical term “to charge to someone’s account” and was so used in 2 Cor. 12:6. (Other references: Orientis Graeci Inscriptiones Selectae, edited by Dittenberger, 1903; and Fayum Towns and Their Papyri, by Grenfell, Hunt, et al.)

The idea of calculation is seen in other places in the concepts of “to evaluate, to estimate, to consider, to look upon as, something, as a result of calculation”. You will see this in Acts 19:27 (cf. Isa. 40:17) and Rom. 9:8; 2:26.

The word is used in the sense of “to count” or “to classify”. In Greek Papyri in the British Museum, Kenyon and Bell said of a camel’s colt: “which is now classed among the full grown.” In the Bible, see Mark 15:28; Luke 22:37 (cf. Isa. 53:12).

Still under the idea of reckoning or calculation, logizomai means “to consider; to look upon someone as”, as in 1 Cor. 4:1; 2 Cor. 10:2; Rom. 8:36 (cf. Ps. 44:22); Rom. 6:11.

Think about; ponder; consider; .

This is the word logizomai used in the sense of one’s mental preparation for the act of “reckoning” or “imputing” something to someone’s account or credit. It means “to have in mind, to propose, to purpose”. See Phil. 4:8; John 11:50; Heb. 11:19; 2 Cor. 10:2, 11.

It is used as “to think; to believe; to be of the opinion” in Rom. 2:3; 3:28; 8:18; 14:14; Phil. 3:13; 2 Cor. 11:5; and 1 Pet. 5:12.

Words from the Papyri

Oxyrynchus Papyri XII, “the due amounts in money and corn are reckoned (logizomai) here” (107 or 108 AD)

ibid III, “let my revenues be placed on deposit (logizomai) at the storehouse” (2nd or 3rd Century AD)

Florentine Papyri (AD 254), “reckoning (logizomai) the wine to him at sixteen drachmae…”

Source materials for this article: Unger’s Bible Dictionary; Kittel’s NT Greek Lexicon; Chester McCalley’s written notes on imputation; Moulton and Milligan studies in the papyri.

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Note the declarations of Scripture about the guarantee of our salvation

This is an excerpt from the Grace Notes study of 1 Peter 1:5

Note the declarations of Scripture about the guarantee of our salvation:

John 6:47, “Most assuredly, I say to you, he who believes in Me has everlasting life.” God gives eternal life, not spasmodic life or intermittent life.
Philippians 1:6, “Being confident of this very thing, that He who has begun a good work in you will complete it until the day of Jesus Christ.” God keeps our salvation until he comes back again.
II Timothy 4:18, “And the Lord will deliver me from every evil work and preserve me for His heavenly kingdom. To Him be glory forever and ever. Amen!” No question, no doubt, no equivocation but absolute assurance that God will preserve us for eternity.
Hebrews 5:9, “And having been perfected, He became the author of eternal salvation to all who obey Him.” God gives eternal salvation, not temporal.
Hebrews 7:25, “Therefore He is also able to save to the uttermost those who come to God through Him, since He always lives to make intercession for them.” The finished work of Christ saves us from the penalty of sin but the unfinished work of Christ at the right hand of God is saving us from the power of sin.
Hebrews 12:2, “Looking unto Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith, who for the joy that was set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.” Jesus is the author and finisher of our faith. He will complete what he starts.
Jude 1, “To those who are called, sanctified by God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ.” God preserves us because of our association with Christ.
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Jude 24-25, “Now to Him who is able to keep you from stumbling, And to present you faultless Before the presence of His glory with exceeding joy, To God our Savior, Who alone is wise, Be glory and majesty, Dominion and power, Both now and forever. Amen.”
Dr. Grant Richison. (n.d.). 1st Epistle of Peter -1.

Adoption – From Eph. 1:5, Gal. 4:5, etc., notes on the believer’s spiritual adoption.

The word adoption in the New Testament is translated from the Greek word huiothesia, which means “the placing of an adult son” and refers to the formal act of recognizing the maturity of an adult son. The word is found in five New Testament passages: Rom. 8:15,23: 9:4; Gal. 4:5; Eph. 1:5.

The new-born baby is brephos, as in “the babe (brephos), lying in a manger…“. The word sometimes refers to the fetus, as in”…the babe (brephos) leapt in her womb…”. The believer is also called teknon, a child which is growing up but which is still under parental care. Hence John 1:12, “…to them gave He power to become the sons (teknon) of God.” But the believer is also in union with Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ is called huios, “an adult son”. So, in union with Him, we are said to be adult sons also, although we may be brephos or teknon by experience.

To the people living in the predominantly Greek and Roman culture of the 1st Century A.D., the word huiothesia would bring to mind the ceremony of toga virilis, in which a 14-year-old boy went through an investiture ceremony with the adult male members of his family. At this ceremony, speeches of challenge to the youth would be made, and offerings would be made to the gods. Then, the boy would stand in the center of the group and take off the child’s garment that he wore. A new adult man’s robe, or toga, would be placed on him. This was the toga virilis, the “robe of a man”.

At this time, the 14-year-old was given adult privileges and responsibilities. He could conduct business in his own name, could buy and sell property, could marry, could vote in the Assembly, and in many other ways could carry on as an adult citizen. Of course, he was not mature enough or wise enough to exercise all of the privileges he had; and he was not experienced enough to live up to all of the responsibilities. But the seriousness of his position as a citizen was impressed on him; and if he was intelligent and hard working, he would grow up to be an adult having integrity and character.

Application

The spiritual use of the word “adoption” signifies the placing of a newborn child, in the spiritual sense, into the position of privilege and responsibility attached to an adult son. The question arises as to why a naturally born child needs to be adopted. Are we not, after all, “born again”? It is here that the true meaning of “adoption” comes in; because in the New Testament, “adoption” refers to a positional advance. The new believer is advanced positionally to his majority, even though at the time of salvation he is spiritually immature, a “babe in Christ”.

Because spiritual adoption takes place at the moment of salvation, there is really no period of childhood experience recognized for believers. The Christian has been placed into the privilege, liberty, and duty of a full-grown adult. Spiritual adoption imposes the same way of life on all children of God. This requirement is reasonable because the Christian life is to be lived in the sustaining and upholding power of the Holy Spirit. And this provision is available as much for one person as for another.

From the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia:

Adoption; Sonship[Gk huiothesía]. The Greek term occurs in the Bible only in Paul’s Epistles (Rom. 8:15, 23; 9:4; Gal. 4:5; Eph. 1:5); for extrabiblical usage see MM, pp. 648f The AV and RV have “adoption” throughout. The RSV has “adoption” in Rom. 8:23; Gal. 4:5, and “sonship” in Rom. 8:15; 9:4; in Eph. 1:5 the RSV reads “to be his sons. ” The NEB in each instance uses a phrase such as “to make us sons” or “to attain the status of sons.”

I. General Legal Idea

The custom prevailed among Greeks, Romans, and other ancient peoples (including the Hurrians; see Abraham III); but it does not appear in Jewish law.

A. In the OT

Three cases of adoption are mentioned: of Moses (Ex. 2:10), Genubath (1 K. 11:20), and Esther (Est. 2:7, 15); but it is remarkable that they all occur outside of Palestine—in Egypt and Persia, where the practice of adoption prevailed. Likewise the idea appears in the NT only in the Epistles of Paul, which were addressed to churches outside Palestine.

The motive and initiative of adoption always lay with the adoptive father, who thus supplied his lack of natural offspring and satisfied the claims of affection and religion, and the desire to exercise paternal authority or to perpetuate his family. The process and conditions of adoption varied with different peoples. Among oriental nations it was extended to slaves (as Moses), who thereby gained their freedom; but in Greece and Rome it was, with rare exceptions, limited to citizens.

B. Greek

In Greece a man might during his lifetime, or by will, to take effect after his death, adopt any male citizen into the privileges of his son, but with the invariable condition that the adopted son accepted the legal obligations and religious duties of a real son.

C. Roman

In Rome the unique nature of paternal authority (patria potestas), by which a son was held in his father’s power, almost as a slave was owned by his master, gave a peculiar character to the process of adoption. For the adoption of a person free from paternal authority (sui juris), the process and effect were practically the same in Rome as in Greece (adrogatio). In a more specific sense, adoption proper (adoptio) was the process by which a person was transferred from his natural father’s power into that of his adoptive father; and it consisted in a fictitious sale of the son, and his surrender by the natural to the adoptive father.

II. Paul’s Doctrine

As a Roman citizen the apostle would naturally know of the Roman custom; but in the cosmopolitan city of Tarsus, and again on his travels, he would become equally familiar with the corresponding customs of other nations. He employed the idea metaphorically much in the manner of Christ’s parables; and, as in their case, there is danger of pressing the analogy too far in its details. It is not clear that he had any specific form of adoption in mind when illustrating his teaching by the general idea. Under this Figure he teaches that God, by the manifestation of His grace in Christ, brings men into the relation of sons to Himself, and communicates to them the experience of sonship.

A. Liberty (Galatians)

In Galatians Paul emphasizes especially the liberty enjoyed by those who live by faith, in contrast to the bondage under which men are held who guide their lives by legal ceremonies and ordinances, as the Galatians were prone to do (5:1). The contrast between law and faith is first set forth on the field of history, as a contrast between both the pre-Christian and the Christian economies (3:23f), although in another passage he carries the idea of adoption back into the covenant relation of God with Israel (Rom. 9:4). But here the historical antithesis is reproduced in the contrast between men who now choose to live under law and those who live by faith.

Here three figures seem to commingle in the description of man’s condition under legal bondage—that of a slave, that of a minor under guardians appointed by his father’s will, and that of a Roman son under the patria potestas (Gal. 4:1–3). The process of liberation is first of all one of redemption or buying out (Gk exagorásē) (4:5). This term in itself applies equally well to the slave who is redeemed from bondage, and the Roman son whose adoptive father buys him out of the authority of his natural father. But in the latter case the condition of the son is not materially altered by the process: he only exchanges one paternal authority for another. If Paul for a moment thought of the process in terms of ordinary Roman adoption, the resulting condition of the son he conceives in terms of the more free and gracious Greek or Jewish family life. Or he may have thought of the rarer case of adoption from conditions of slavery into the status of sonship. The redemption is only a precondition of adoption, which follows upon faith, and is accompanied by the sending of “the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, Abba, Father,” and then all bondage is done away (4:5–7).

B. Deliverance from Debt (Romans)

In Rom. 8:12–17 the idea of obligation or debt is coupled with that of liberty. Man is thought of as at one time under the authority and power of the flesh (8:5), but when the Spirit of Christ comes to dwell in him, he is a debtor no longer to the flesh but to the Spirit (vv 12f), and debt or obligation to the Spirit is itself liberty. As in Galatians, man thus passes from a state of bondage into a state of sonship which is also a state of liberty. “For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these [and these only] are sons of God” (v 14). The spirit of adoption or sonship stands in diametrical opposition to the spirit of bondage (v 15). And the Spirit to which we are debtors and by which we are led, at once awakens and confirms the experience of sonship within us (v 16). In both places, Paul conveys under this figure the idea of man as passing from a state of alienation from God and of bondage under law and sin, into that relation with God of mutual confidence and love, of unity of thought and will, which should characterize the ideal family, and in which all restraint, compulsion, and fear have passed away.

III. The Christian Experience

As a fact of Christian experience, the adoption is the recognition and affirmation by man of his sonship toward God. It follows upon faith in Christ, by which man becomes so united with Christ that His filial spirit enters into him, and takes possession of his consciousness, so that he knows and greets God as Christ does (cf. Mk. 14:36).

A. In Relation to Justification

It is an aspect of the same experience that Paul describes elsewhere, under another legal metaphor, as justification by faith. According to the latter, God declares the sinner righteous and treats him as such, admits him to the experience of forgiveness, reconciliation, and peace (Rom. 5:1). In all this the relation of father and son is undoubtedly involved, but in adoption it is emphatically expressed. It is not only that the prodigal son is welcomed home, glad to confess that he is not worthy to be called a son, and willing to be made as one of the hired servants, but he is embraced and restored to be a son as before. The point of each metaphor is, that justification is the act of a merciful judge setting the prisoner free, but adoption is the act of a generous father, taking a son to his bosom and endowing him with liberty, favor, and a heritage.

B. In Relation to Sanctification

Besides, justification is the beginning of a process which needs for its completion a progressive course of sanctification by the aid of the Holy Spirit, but adoption is coextensive with sanctification. The sons of God are those led by the Spirit of God (Rom. 8:14), and the same Spirit of God gives the experience of sonship. Sanctification describes the process of general cleansing and growth as an abstract process, but adoption includes it as a concrete relation to God, as loyalty, obedience, and fellowship with an ever loving Father.

C. In Relation to Regeneration

Some have identified adoption with regeneration, and therefore many Fathers and Roman Catholic theologians have identified it with baptismal regeneration, thereby excluding the essential fact of conscious sonship. The new birth and adoption are certainly aspects of the same totality of experience; but they belong to different systems of thought, and to identify them is to invite confusion. The new birth defines especially the origin and moral quality of the Christian experience as an abstract fact, but adoption expresses a concrete relation of man to God. Nor does Paul here raise the question of man’s natural and original condition. It is pressing the analogy too far to infer from this doctrine of adoption that man is by nature not God’s son. It would contradict Paul’s teaching elsewhere (e.g., Acts 17:28), and he should not be convicted of inconsistency on the application of a metaphor. He conceives man outside Christ as morally an alien and a stranger from God, and the change wrought by faith in Christ makes him morally a son and conscious of his sonship; but naturally he is always a potential son because God is always a real father.

IV. As God’s Act

Adoption as God’s act is an eternal process of His gracious love, for He “foreordained us unto adoption as sons through Jesus Christ unto himself, according to the good pleasure of his will” (Eph. 1:5).

A. Divine Fatherhood

The motive and impulse of Fatherhood which result in adoption were eternally real and active in God. In some sense He had bestowed the adoption upon Israel (Rom. 9:4). “Israel is my son, my first-born” (Ex. 4:22; cf. Dt. 14:1; 32:6; Jer. 31:9; Hos. 11:1). God could not reveal Himself at all without revealing something of His Fatherhood, but the whole revelation was as yet partial and prophetic. When “God sent forth his Son” to “redeem them that were under the law,” it became possible for men to receive the adoption; for to those who are willing to receive it, He sent the Spirit of the eternal Son to testify in their hearts that they are sons of God, and to give them confidence and utterance to enable them to call God their Father (Gal. 4:5f; Rom. 8:15).

_B. Its Cosmic Range_

But this experience also is incomplete, and looks forward to a fuller adoption in the response, not only of man’s spirit, but of the whole creation, including man’s body, to the Fatherhood of God (Rom. 8:23). Every filial spirit now groans, because it finds itself imprisoned in a body subjected to vanity, but it awaits a redemption of the body, perhaps in the resurrection, or in some final consummation, when the whole material creation shall be transformed into a fitting environment for the sons of God, the creation itself delivered from the bondage of corruption into the liberty of the glory of the children of God (Rom. 8:21). Then will adoption be complete, when man’s whole personality shall be in harmony with the spirit of sonship, and the whole universe favorable to its perseverance in a state of blessedness.


See also: Children of God.

Bibliography.—comms inloc, esp W. Sanday on Romans (ICC, 14th ed 1913) and J. B. Lightfoot on Galatians (1900); RTWB (R. H. Fuller); TDNT, VIII, sv υἱοθεσία (Wülfing von Martitz, Schweizer).

T. Rees

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The Barrier, Reconciliation, Justification

For a Scripture friendly version, go here.

This paper is a brief study of the Biblical doctrines of reconciliation and propitiation, which are vitally important to a Christian’s understanding of how God has made it possible for any person to have a good relationship with Him. Jesus Christ, by bearing our sins on the cross, fulfilled God’s requirements for a perfect sacrifice; and the effect was to remove all impediments to our receiving eternal life and having fellowship with God.

Reconciliation

The word reconciliation refers to the process of changing something thoroughly and adjusting it to something else that is a standard. For example, when you adjust your watch to a time signal, you are reconciling the watch to a time standard. When you reconcile your checkbook, the standard to which you match it is the bank’s record of your account. On rare occasions the bank must reconcile its accounts to yours.

In the Bible, reconciliation is the word used to refer to the process by which God changes human beings and adjusts them to the standard of His perfect character. Rom. 11:15 refers to the “reconciling of the world”. The Greek word used here is the noun καταλλαγη (katallagei). This word is also used in Rom. 5:11, “…but we also joy in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the reconciliation._” Note that man is not active in reconciliation and provides nothing toward reconciliation. Read also 2 Cor. 5:17-21.

Reconciliation also appears in the verb form καταλλασσω (katallasso), meaning “to reconcile”. It is used in the active voice in 2 Cor. 5:18 with the meaning of “reconciling someone to someone else.” In this case, God reconciles us to Himself, through the Lord Jesus Christ. This verb in the passive voice means “to be reconciled” or “to become reconciled”, and it is used in the case of man’s relationship to God in Rom. 5:10 and 2 Cor. 5:20. The passive voice is also used in cases of reconciliation between people, as in 1 Cor. 7:11 and Matt. 5:24.

Another Greek word translated “to reconcile” is ιλασκοµαι (hilaskomai), meaning “to reconcile” in the sense of providing propitiation, as in Luke 18:13. It is used of the activity of the Lord Jesus Christ as High Priest in making reconciliation for His people, Heb. 2:17.

Rom. 5:6-11 points out that the whole world needs to be reconciled to God. Note the adjectives in this passage which stress this need: “ungodly”, “without strength”, “sinners” and “enemies”.

Reconciliation is an important consideration in the study of the doctrine of the barrier. By the death of Christ on the cross, the world is thoroughly changed in its relationship to God, Eph. 2:14-18 and Col. 1:20-22. That is, through the cross of Christ the world is so altered in its position respecting the character and judgment of God that God does not now impute sin to human beings. The world is therefore rendered savable!

Because the position of the world before God is completely changed through the substitutionary atonement of Christ, God’s attitude toward man can no longer be the same. God can now deal with souls in the light of Christ’s work.

Notice that God is never said to be reconciled to man. God is immutable, so He does not change. Reconciliation is only possible in one direction. What sometimes seems to be a change in God is actually an unchanged attitude of God viewing a reconciled man. God, having how accepted Christ’s work, is able to continue to be just toward man. He can now offer salvation.

A person profits from reconciliation by faith in the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Once he becomes a believer, a person can partake in all of the blessings which accompany his position in Christ, including the privileges accruing from reconciliation.

The believer, in turn, has the responsibility of becoming a minister of reconciliation, 2 Cor. 5:18–19. The truth of reconciliation is one of the key salvation doctrines to be used in witnessing to those without Christ.

Propitiation

Propitiation is the work of the Lord Jesus Christ by which He appeases the wrath of God and conciliates Him who would otherwise be offended by our sin and would demand that we pay the penalty for it.

Propitiation is translated from the Greek ‘ιλαστεριον (hilasterion), meaning “that which expiates or propitiates” or “the gift which procures propitiation”. The word is also used in the New Testament for the place of propitiation, the “mercy seat”. Heb. 9:5. There is frequent similar use of hilasterion in the Septuagint. Ex. 25:18 ff. The mercy seat was sprinkled with atoning blood on the day of atonement (Lev. 16:14), representing that the righteous sentence of the Law had been executed, changing a judgment seat into a mercy seat (Heb. 9:11-15; compare with “throne of grace” in Heb. 4:14-16; place of communion, Ex. 25:21-22).

Another Greek word, ‘ιλασµος (hilasmos), is used for Christ as our propitiation. 1 John 2:2; 4:10, and for “atonement” in the Septuagint (Lev. 25:9). The thought in the Old Testament sacrifices and in the New Testament fulfillment is that Christ completely satisfied the just demands of a holy God for judgment on sin by His death on the cross.

God, foreseeing the cross, is declared righteous in forgiving sins in the Old Testament period as well as in justifying sinners under the new covenant (Rom. 3:25, 26; cf. Ex. 29:33, note). Propitiation is not the placating of a vengeful God but, rather, it is the satisfying the righteousness of a holy God, thereby making it possible for Him to show mercy without compromising His righteousness or justice.

The Hebrew kaphar, means “to propitiate, to atone for sin”.. According to scripture, the sacrifice required by the Law only covered the individual’s sin making the sin offering and secured personal divine forgiveness. The Old Testament sacrifices never removed man’s sin. “It is not possible…”, Heb. 10:4. The Israelite’s offering implied confession of sin in anticipation of Christ’s sacrifice which did, finally, “put away” the sins “done previously in the forbearance of God”. Rom. 3:25; Heb. 9:15, 26. The word “atonement” does not occur in the New Testament; the word in Rom. 5:11 is “reconciliation”.

The beginning of the subject of propitiation is found far back in the Bible, back to the designing of the tabernacle in the wilderness, the tent which God had the people of Israel set up which would be the center of His presence on earth.

The tabernacle occupies a large portion of Scripture, sixteen chapters in the book of Exodus and the whole book of Leviticus. Every feature of the tabernacle, of the worship carried out there, of the priestly life and duties, of the vestments of the priests, the sacrifices, the feast days–every feature was vitally important and designed by the Lord for eternal purposes. It is very important for the church age believer to have a good working knowledge of the Levitical system in order to appreciate fully the work of Christ and the plan of God as they have been instituted in the world.

There was great stress on the blueprint of the tabernacle.

Exodus 25:8, 9 “And let them make me a sanctuary; that I may dwell among them. According to all that I show thee, after the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of all the instruments thereof, even so shall ye make it.”

The pattern was given to Moses on Mt. Sinai, along with the Law. Read Hebrews 8:1–6. The tabernacle was a symbolical expression of spiritual truth. The congregation of the Jews did not go beyond the courtyard of the tabernacle. They made offerings only at the brazen altar; and only the priests were allowed to go anyplace else in the tabernacle. The tabernacle was the dwelling place of God on earth, and God was unapproachable by sinful men. The main lessons being taught had to do with the perfection of God and the sinfulness of man.

The Furniture of the Tabernacle

Brazen Altar – This altar was the beginning of a person’s approach to God. Animal sacrifices made there taught that substitutionary sacrifice is the first step toward fellowship with God. When a person passed outside the gate of the tabernacle, the only thing that he could see was the smoke rising from the burnt offerings, and through the one gate could be seen the altar of sacrifice and the blood being shed. Everything else was hidden from view by the curtain. This was a continuous reminder of “the Lamb of God that takes away the sin of the world.” The only thing the unbeliever can ever see is the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the good news of Christ’s substitutionary sacrifice for us.

A description of the brazen altar is found in Ex. 27:1–8 and Ex. 38:1-7.

The Laver– Here the priests cleaned their hands and arms before performing any service or act of worship (Ex. 30:17-21). It was placed between the brazen altar and the tent of worship (the holy place). This cleansing symbolized the spiritual cleansing which is essential to both worship and service.

The Candlesticks– These illustrated the need for illumination, the light of the world. See Ex. 25:31–40; 37:17–24.

The Table of Bread – An illustration of the need for spiritual food. See Ex. 25:23–30; 37:10–16.

The Altar of Incense– From Ex. 30:1–10, this piece of tabernacle furniture illustrated the need for acceptable worship and prayer. No animals were offered on this altar. The offering was an incense offering, indicating that which is pleasing to God, divine good (gold, silver, and precious stones). The fire for the altar of incense came from the brazen altar, indicating that worship can only come after salvation. No strange fire was allowed; and Nadab and Abihu died for disobeying this rule.

The Veil– The veil symbolized the barrier between God and man; only the high priest could enter the holy of holies, and that only once a year on the day of atonement, to offer the blood on the mercy seat of the ark of the covenant.

The Ark of the Covenant – The ark of the covenant was located in the holy of holies of the tabernacle. It was made of acacia wood and overlaid with gold. Its dimensions were 50 inches long by 30 inches wide by 30 inches deep. The ark was a picture of Christ bearing our sins, the box part representing Christ. The wood illustrated the humanity of Christ, the gold represented His deity.

Inside the ark were three objects representing sin (Num. 17:8, 10; Heb. 9:4). The tables of the Law represented sin in the sense of violation or transgression of God’s order. The pot of manna represented rejection of God’s provision. Aaron’s rod represented revolt against God’s authority.

Over the top of the box was a lid of solid gold, the mercy seat (or throne). Over each end of the mercy seat was a gold cherub, the highest ranking angel. The first cherub represented the absolute righteousness of God, and the second cherub represented the justice of God. Together they represented the holiness of God. The cherubs faced toward each other, wings outstretched towards each other, and looked down at the mercy seat. “Righteousness” looks down and condemns (Rom. 3:23). “Justice” looks down and assesses a penalty.

Once a year, on the day of atonement, the high priest went into the holy of holies twice; once to make atonement for his own sins, and then to do so for the people. He sprinkled blood from the sacrifice on the ark, on the top of the mercy seat, between the cherubs. This was a graphic illustration of God’s grace provision for sin. “Righteousness” looks at the blood of the animal, which represents the spiritual death of Christ on the cross, His substitutionary atonement, and is satisfied. “Justice” looks at the blood and is satisfied that the penalty paid for sin was sufficient, teaching that Christ was judged and paid the penalty for us.

Therefore, the ark speaks of redemption – Christ paid for our sins, paid our ransom, to purchase us from the slave market of sin.

So we have in the ark and the mercy seat a picture of God’s satisfaction with the work of Jesus Christ known as propitiation.

Now, the Hebrew word for mercy seat is kapporeth. The Greek word used in the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament is hilasterion. This same Greek word is found in the New Testament in Rom. 3:25; Heb. 9:5; 1 John 2:2; and 4:10. and is translated “mercy seat” or “place of propitiation”. So there is a direct relationship between the mercy seat in the tabernacle and the doctrine of propitiation.

Because of propitiation, God is free to love the believer without compromising either His righteousness or justice. The thought in the Old Testament sacrifices and in the New Testament fulfillment is that Christ completely satisfied the just demands of a holy God for judgment of sin.

Propitiation is not the placating of a vengeful God; but it is, rather, the satisfying of the righteousness of a holy God making it possible for Him to show mercy without compromise. Propitiation demonstrates the consistency of God’s character in saving the worst sinners. Propitiation reconciles man to God. This means that sin is no longer the issued between man and God. The only issue, both for the Old Testament and New Testament believers, is “believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved.” (Acts 16:31)

The Barrier

The word “barrier” has been coined by Bible teachers (it is not a Bible word) to refer to those characteristics of man and of God which cause man to be alienated from God. The barrier, as described in six parts below, represents mankind’s need to be reconciled to God by God’s grace provision.

  • Every person has a retroactive “position” in Adam. Because Adam died spiritually, every person is born spiritually dead. Read 1 Cor. 15:22 and Eph. 2:5, 6.

This problem is solved by God’s offering to us a “position” in Christ, a condition which forms the basis for the doctrines related to positional truth. Read 1 John 5:11, 12; 1 Cor. 15:22; Eph. 1:7.

  • Man’s physical birth places him in a condemned human race: 1 Cor. 15:22; Eph. 2:5, 6.

This problem is solved by God’s allowing us to become members of His family through regeneration: John 1:11, 12; 3:3 ff; Gal. 3:26; Titus 3:5.

  • God’s perfect character, His glory, His perfect essence, disallows imperfection of any kind. Example: The Ten Commandments. Read Rom. 3:23; Gal. 3:22, 23; Ps. 145:17.

But the death of Christ on the cross paid the penalty for our sin. He was our propitiation. Propitiation is “the work of the Lord Jesus Christ by which He appeases the wrath of God and conciliates Him who would otherwise be offended by our sin.” Read 1 John 2:2; Rom. 3:25.

  • Man’s personal righteousness falls short of God’s perfect righteousness: Isa. 64:6; Rom. 3:10–12; Rom. 5:6-11.

This problem is solved in two ways. First, by justification, “God’s act of grace by which He pardons the sinner and accepts him as righteous on account of the atonement of Christ.” Read Rom. 3:24; 5:1.

Then, by imputation, “the act of God by which He credits human sin to Christ in order that He may in turn credit righteousness to men.” Read Rom. 3:22; 2 Cor. 5:21.

  • Man’s personal sin causes him to fall short on a day by day basis: Rom. 3:23. This problem is solved by redemption, by which man is purchased from the slave market of sin and set free as a citizen of the heavenly kingdom: John 8:31-36; Eph. 1:7.
  • Man stands under the penalty of sin: Rom. 6:23; 5:12.

The penalty for sin was paid by Jesus Christ on the cross. This is known as expiation, a blotting out of sin: Col. 2:14.

The barrier is removed and man is free to approach God. God is free to treat man in grace. God’s righteousness and justice are satisfied. The complete penalty has been paid.

There is no double jeopardy for sins committed. “As far as the east is from the west, so far hath He removed our transgressions from us.” Therefore, the only issue to be faced by any person is whether he believes in Jesus Christ and His work on the cross. Read Acts 16:30: John 3:15-17, 36; 5:24.

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Salvation Doctrines

“The Christian who does not understand what God has done in the past, and does not have faith in what God will do in the future, will be overwhelmed by today’s crisis.” Chester McCalley

Your Christian life began the moment you believed the Gospel, putting your complete confidence in the Lord Jesus Christ for salvation. At that moment, God provided you with a great number of unique and permanent blessings. “…and hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ.” (Eph. 1:3) These blessings are a part of your inheritance as a Christian; they are the doctrines and promises upon which you may draw during the remainder of your lifetime.

The following is a listing of salvation doctrines, a catalogue of the things God did for you when you accepted Christ. These basic teachings are the underlying principles for the mechanics of Christian living, the techniques such as faith rest and occupation with Christ, and are foundation principles for all other Bible doctrine.

This listing can provide you with hours of quality study and meditation. You may well find other topics that could be added to the list. It is valuable and important that you understand thoroughly your relationship with the Lord; a good knowledge of these doctrines can be of great help to you in solving problems and making decisions according to God’s viewpoint.

You are in the eternal plan of God, sharing the destiny of the Lord Jesus Christ. As such you are:

Foreknown

Acts 2:23. “this Man, delivered over by the predetermined plan and foreknowledge of God, you nailed to a cross by the hands of godless men and put Him to death.”

Romans 8:29. “For those whom He foreknew, He also predestined to become conformed to the image of His Son, so that He would be the firstborn among many brethren;”

1 Peter 1:2. “according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, by the sanctifying work of the Spirit, to obey Jesus Christ and be sprinkled with His blood: May grace and peace be yours in the fullest measure.”

Elect

Romans 8:33. “Who will bring a charge against God’s elect? God is the one who justifies;”

Colossians 3:12. “So, as those who have been chosen of God, holy and beloved, put on a heart of compassion, kindness, humility, gentleness and patience;”

1 Thessalonians 1:4. “knowing, brethren beloved by God, His choice of you;”

Titus 1:1. “Paul, a bond-servant of God and an apostle of Jesus Christ, for the faith of those chosen of God and the knowledge of the truth which is according to godliness,”

1 Peter 1:1, 2. “Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who reside as aliens, scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, who are chosen”

Predestined

Romans 8:29, 30. “For those whom He foreknew, He also predestined to become conformed to the image of His Son, so that *He would be the firstborn among many brethren; and these whom He predestined, He also called; and these whom He called, He also justified; and these whom He justified, He also glorified.”

Ephesians 1:5. “He predestined us to adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the kind intention of His will”

Ephesians 1:11. “also we have obtained an inheritance, having been predestined according to His purpose who works all things after the counsel of His will,”

Chosen in Christ

Matthew 22:14. “For many are called, but few are chosen.”

1 Peter 2:4. “And coming to Him as to a living stone which has been rejected by men, but is choice and precious in the sight of God”

Called

1 Thessalonians 5:24. “Faithful is He who calls you, and He also will bring it to pass.”

You have been reconciled

Reconciled by God

2 Corinthians 5:18. “Now all these things are from God, who reconciled us to Himself through Christ and gave us the ministry of reconciliation,”

Colossians 1:20. “and through Him to reconcile all things to Himself, having made peace through the blood of His cross; through Him, I say, whether things on earth or things in heaven.”

Reconciled to God

Romans 5:10. “For if while we were enemies we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son, much more, having been reconciled, we shall be saved by His life.”

2 Corinthians 5:20. “Therefore, we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God were making an appeal through us; we beg you on behalf of Christ, be reconciled to God.”

Ephesians 2:14-16. “For He Himself is our peace, who made both groups into one and broke down the barrier of the dividing wall, by abolishing in His flesh the enmity, which is the Law of commandments contained in ordinances, so that in Himself He might make the two into one new man, thus establishing peace, and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, by it having put to death the enmity.”

You have been redeemed (purchased from the slave market of sin).

Romans 3:24. “being justified as a gift by His grace through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus;”

Colossians 1:14. “in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins.”

1 Peter 1:18. “knowing that you were not redeemed with perishable things like silver or gold from your futile way of life inherited from your forefathers,”

Ephesians 1:7. “In Him we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace”

You have been removed from condemnation.**

John 3:18. “He who believes in Him is not judged; he who does not believe has been judged already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.”

John 5:24. “Truly, truly, I say to you, he who hears My word, and believes Him who sent Me, has eternal life, and does not come into judgment, but has passed out of death into life.”

Romans 8:1. “Therefore there is now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus.”

You are under grace and not under judgment (doctrine of propitiation).

Romans 3:24–28. “being justified as a gift by His grace through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus; whom God displayed publicly as a propitiation in His blood through faith. This was to demonstrate His righteousness, because in the forbearance of God He passed over the sins previously committed; for the demonstration, I say, of His righteousness at the present time, so that He would be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus. Where then is boasting? It is excluded. By what kind of law? Of works? No, but by a law of faith. For we maintain that a man is justified by faith apart from works of the Law.”

1 John 2:2. “and He Himself is the propitiation for our sins; and not for ours only, but also for those of the whole world.”

Your sins have been judged by the spiritual death of Christ on the cross:

Romans 4:25. “He who was delivered over because of our transgressions, and was raised because of our justification.”

Ephesians 1:7. “In Him we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace”

1 Peter 2:24. “and He Himself bore our sins in His body on the cross, so that we might die to sin and live to righteousness; for by His wounds you were healed.”

You have been made dead to the old life and alive unto God. You are:
Crucified with Christ

Romans 6:6. “knowing this, that our old self was crucified with Him, in order that our body of sin might be done away with, so that we would no longer be slaves to sin;”

Galatians 2:20. “I have been crucified with Christ; and it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me; and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave Himself up for me.”

Dead with Christ

Romans 6:8. “Now if we have died with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with Him,”

Colossians 3:3. “For you have died and your life is hidden with Christ in God.”

1 Peter 2:24. “and He Himself bore our sins in His body on the cross, so that we might die to sin and live to righteousness; for by His wounds you were healed.”

Buried with Christ

Romans 6:4. “Therefore we have been buried with Him through baptism into death, so that as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we too might walk in newness of life.”

Colossians 2:12. “having been buried with Him in baptism, in which you were also raised up with Him through faith in the working of God, who raised Him from the dead.”

Risen with Christ

Romans 6:4. “Therefore we have been buried with Him through baptism into death, so that as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we too might walk in newness of life.”

Colossians 3:1. “Therefore if you have been raised up with Christ, keep seeking the things above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God.”

You are free from the law.

Romans 6:14. “For sin shall not be master over you, for you are not under law but under grace.”

Romans 7:4-6. “Therefore, my brethren, you also were made to die to the Law through the body of Christ, so that you might be joined to another, to Him who was raised from the dead, in order that we might bear fruit for God. For while we were in the flesh, the sinful passions, which were aroused by the Law, were at work in the members of our body to bear fruit for death. But now we have been released from the Law, having died to that by which we were bound, so that we serve in newness of the Spirit and not in oldness of the letter.”

2 Corinthians 3:11. “For if that which fades away was with glory, much more that which remains is in glory.”

Galatians 3:25. “But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a tutor [the Law].”

You have been adopted (placed as an adult heir in the family of God)

Romans 8:15. “For you have not received a spirit of slavery leading to fear again, but you have received a spirit of adoption as sons by which we cry out, ‘Abba! Father!'”

Romans 8:23. “And not only this, but also we ourselves, having the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting eagerly for our adoption as sons, the redemption of our body.”

Ephesians 1:5. “He predestined us to adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the kind intention of His will,”

You have been justified (declared righteous).

Romans 3:24. “being justified as a gift by His grace through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus;”

Romans 5:1. “Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ,”

Romans 5:9. “Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from the wrath of God through Him.”

Romans 8:30. “and these whom He predestined, He also called; and these whom He called, He also justified; and these whom He justified, He also glorified.”

1 Corinthians 6:11. “Such were some of you; but you were washed, but you were sanctified, but you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God.”

Titus 3:7. “so that being justified by His grace we would be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life.”

You have been regenerated (born spiritually into the family of God)

John 13:10. “Jesus said to him, “He who has bathed needs only to wash his feet, but is completely clean; and you are clean, but not all of you.”

1 Corinthians 6:11. “Such were some of you; but you were washed, but you were sanctified, but you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God.”

Titus 3:5. “He saved us, not on the basis of deeds which we have done in righteousness, but according to His mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewing by the Holy Spirit,”

By regeneration you are:
Born Again

John 3:7. “Do not be amazed that I said to you, ‘You must be born again.”

1 Peter 1:23. “for you have been born again not of seed which is perishable but imperishable, that is, through the living and enduring word of God.”

Children of God

Galatians 3:26. “For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus.”

Sons of God

John 1:12. “But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, even to those who believe in His name,”

2 Corinthians 6:18. “‘And I will be a father to you, And you shall be sons and daughters to Me,’ Says the Lord Almighty.”

1 John 3:2. “Beloved, now we are children of God, and it has not appeared as yet what we will be. We know that when He appears, we will be like Him, because we will see Him just as He is.”

New Creations

2 Corinthians 5:17. “Therefore if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creature; the old things passed away; behold, new things have come.”

Galatians 6:15. “For neither is circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation.”

Ephesians 2:10. “For we are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand so that we would walk in them.”

You have been made acceptable to God.

Ephesians 1:6. “to the praise of the glory of His grace, which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved.”

1 Peter 2:5. “you also, as living stones, are being built up as a spiritual house for a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.”

To make a believer acceptable to Himself, God sees to it that you have been:
Made righteous

Romans 3:22. “even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all those who believe; for there is no distinction;”

1 Corinthians 1:30. “But by His doing you are in Christ Jesus, who became to us wisdom from God, and righteousness and sanctification, and redemption,”

2 Corinthians 5:21. “He made Him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.”

Philippians 3:9. “and may be found in Him, not having a righteousness of my own derived from the Law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which comes from God on the basis of faith,”

Sanctified positionally

1 Corinthians 1:30. “But by His doing you are in Christ Jesus, who became to us wisdom from God, and righteousness and sanctification, and redemption,”

1 Corinthians 6:11. “Such were some of you; but you were washed, but you were sanctified, but you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God.”

Perfected forever

Hebrews 10:14. “For by one offering He has perfected for all time those who are sanctified._”

Made qualified

Colossians 1:12. “giving thanks to the Father, who has qualified us to share in the inheritance of the saints in Light.”

You have been forgiven all trespasses or sins

Ephesians 1:7. “In Him we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace.”

Ephesians 4:32. “Be kind to one another, tender-hearted, forgiving each other, just as God in Christ also has forgiven you.”

Colossians 1:14. “in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins.”

Colossians 2:13. “When you were dead in your transgressions and the uncircumcision of your flesh, He made you alive together with Him, having forgiven us all our transgressions,”

Colossians 3:13. “bearing with one another, and forgiving each other, whoever has a complaint against anyone; just as the Lord forgave you, so also should you.”

You have been made a heavenly citizen based on reconciliation.

Luke 10:20. “Nevertheless do not rejoice in this, that the spirits are subject to you, but rejoice that your names are recorded in heaven.”

Ephesians 2:13,19. “But now in Christ Jesus you who formerly were far off have been brought near by the blood of Christ. 19 So then you are no longer strangers and aliens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and are of God’s household”

Philippians 3:20. “For our citizenship is in heaven, from which also we eagerly wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ;”

You have been delivered from the kingdom of Satan

Colossians 1:13. “For He rescued us from the domain of darkness, and transferred us to the kingdom of His beloved Son,”

Colossians 2:15. “When He had disarmed the rulers and authorities, He made a public display of them, having triumphed over them through Him.”

You have been transferred into God’s kingdom.

Colossians 1:13. “For He rescued us from the domain of darkness, and transferred us to the kingdom of His beloved Son,

You have been placed on a secure foundation.

1 Corinthians 3:11. “For no man can lay a foundation other than the one which is laid, which is Jesus Christ.”

1 Corinthians 10:4. “and all drank the same spiritual drink, for they were drinking from a spiritual rock which followed them; and the rock was Christ.”

Ephesians 2:20. “having been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus Himself being the corner stone,”

You are a gift from God the Father to the Lord Jesus Christ.

John 17:2, 6, 9, 11, 12, 24. “even as You gave Him authority over all flesh, that to all whom You have given Him, He may give eternal life.” 6 “I have manifested Your name to the men whom You gave Me out of the world; they were Yours and You gave them to Me, and they have kept Your word.” 9 “I ask on their behalf; I do not ask on behalf of the world, but of those whom You have given Me; for they are Yours.” 11 “I am no longer in the world; and yet they themselves are in the world, and I come to You. Holy Father, keep them in Your name, the name which You have given Me, that they may be one even as We are.” 12 “While I was with them, I was keeping them in Your name which You have given Me; and I guarded them and not one of them perished but the son of perdition, so that the Scripture would be fulfilled.” 24 “Father, I desire that they also, whom You have given Me, be with Me where I am, so that they may see My glory which You have given Me, for You loved Me before the foundation of the world.”

You have been delivered from the power of the sin nature.

Romans 2:29. “But he is a Jew who is one inwardly; and circumcision is that which is of the heart, by the Spirit, not by the letter; and his praise is not from men, but from God.”

Philippians 3:3. “for we are the true circumcision, who worship in the Spirit of God and glory in Christ Jesus and put no confidence in the flesh,”

Colossians 2:11. “and in Him you were also circumcised with a circumcision made without hands, in the removal of the body of the flesh by the circumcision of Christ;”

You have been appointed as a priest unto God.

1 Peter 2:5,9. “you also, as living stones, are being built up as a spiritual house for a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.” 9 “But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God’s own possession, so that you may proclaim the excellencies of Him who has called you out of darkness into His marvelous light;”

Revelation 1:6. “and He has made us to be a kingdom, priests to His God and Father—to Him be the glory and the dominion forever and ever.”

You are under the care of God as a chosen generation and a protected people.

Titus 2:14. “who gave Himself for us to redeem us from every lawless deed, and to purify for Himself a people for His own possession, zealous for good deeds.”

1 Peter 2:9. “But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God’s own possession, so that you may proclaim the excellencies of Him who has called you out of darkness into His marvelous light;”

You have been given access to God.

Romans 5:2. “through whom also we have obtained our introduction by faith into this grace in which we stand; and we exult in hope of the glory of God.”

Ephesians 2:18. “for through Him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father.”

Hebrews 4:14,16. “Therefore, since we have a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our confession.” 16 “Therefore let us draw near with confidence to the throne of grace, so that we may receive mercy and find grace to help in time of need.”

Hebrews 10:19,20. “Therefore, brethren, since we have confidence to enter the holy place by the blood of Jesus, by a new and living way which He inaugurated for us through the veil, that is, His flesh,”

You are within the much more care of God.
Objects of His love

Ephesians 2:4. “But God, being rich in mercy, because of His great love with which He loved us,”

Ephesians 5:2. “and walk in love, just as Christ also loved you and gave Himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God as a fragrant aroma.”

Objects of His grace

For salvation, Ephesians 2:8,9. “For by grace you have been saved through faith; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; not as a result of works, so that no one may boast.”

For keeping, Romans 5:2. “and walk in love, just as Christ also loved you and gave Himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God as a fragrant aroma.”

1 Peter 1:5. “who are protected by the power of God through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.”

For service, John 17:18. “As You sent Me into the world, I also have sent them into the world.”

Ephesians 4:7. “But to each one of us grace was given according to the measure of Christ’s gift.”

For instruction, Titus 2:12. “instructing us to deny ungodliness and worldly desires and to live sensibly, righteously and godly in the present age,”

Objects of His power

Ephesians 1:19. “and what is the surpassing greatness of His power toward us who believe. These are in accordance with the working of the strength of His might”

Philippians 2:13. “for it is God who is at work in you, both to will and to work for His good pleasure.”

Objects of His faithfulness

Philippians 1:6. “For I am confident of this very thing, that He who began a good work in you will perfect it until the day of Christ Jesus.”

Hebrews 13:5. “Make sure that your character is free from the love of money, being content with what you have; for He Himself has said, “I will never desert you, nor will I ever forsake you,’”

Objects of His peace

John 14:27. “Peace I leave with you; My peace I give to you; not as the world gives do I give to you. Do not let your heart be troubled, nor let it be fearful.”

Objects of His consolation

2 Thessalonians 2:16. “Now may our Lord Jesus Christ Himself and God our Father, who has loved us and given us eternal comfort and good hope by grace,”

Objects of His intercession

Romans 8:34. “who is the one who condemns? Christ Jesus is He who died, yes, rather who was raised, who is at the right hand of God, who also intercedes for us.”

Romans 7:25. “Thanks be to God through Jesus Christ our Lord! So then, on the one hand I myself with my mind am serving the law of God, but on the other, with my flesh the law of sin.”

Romans 9:24. “even us, whom He also called, not from among Jews only, but also from among Gentiles.”

You are a beneficiary of the inheritance from God (an heir of God and a joint-heir with the Lord Jesus Christ).

Romans 8:17. “and if children, heirs also, heirs of God and fellow heirs with Christ, if indeed we suffer with Him so that we may also be glorified with Him.”

Ephesians 1:14,18. “who is given as a pledge of our inheritance, with a view to the redemption of God’s own possession, to the praise of His glory.” 18 “I pray that the eyes of your heart may be enlightened, so that you will know what is the hope of His calling, what are the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints,”

Colossians 3:24. “knowing that from the Lord you will receive the reward of the inheritance. It is the Lord Christ whom you serve.”

Hebrews 9:15. “For this reason He is the mediator of a new covenant, so that, since a death has taken place for the redemption of the transgressions that were committed under the first covenant, those who have been called may receive the promise of the eternal inheritance.”

1 Peter 1:4. “to obtain an inheritance which is imperishable and undefiled and will not fade away, reserved in heaven for you,”

You have a new position in Christ.

Ephesians 2:6. “and raised us up with Him, and seated us with Him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus,”

Colossians 3:4. “When Christ, who is our life, is revealed, then you also will be revealed with Him in glory.”

1 Corinthians 1:9. “God is faithful, through whom you were called into fellowship with His Son, Jesus Christ our Lord.”

1 Corinthians 3:9. “For we are God’s fellow workers; you are God’s field, God’s building.”

2 Corinthians 3:3,6. “being manifested that you are a letter of Christ, cared for by us, written not with ink but with the Spirit of the living God, not on tablets of stone but on tablets of human hearts.” 6 “who also made us adequate as servants of a new covenant, not of the letter but of the Spirit; for the letter kills, but the Spirit gives life.”

2 Corinthians 5:20. “Therefore, we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God were making an appeal through us; we beg you on behalf of Christ, be reconciled to God.”

2 Corinthians 6:1,4. “And working together with Him, we also urge you not to receive the grace of God in vain” 4“but in everything commending ourselves as servants of God, in much endurance, in afflictions, in hardships, in distresses,”

You are the recipient of eternal life.

John 3:15. “so that whoever believes will in Him have eternal life.”

John 10:28. “and I give eternal life to them, and they will never perish; and no one will snatch them out of My hand.”

John 20:31. “but these have been written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing you may have life in His name.”

1 John 5:11,12. “And the testimony is this, that God has given us eternal life, and this life is in His Son. He who has the Son has the life; he who does not have the Son of God does not have the life.”

You are a member of the family of God.

Galatians 6:10. “So then, while we have opportunity, let us do good to all people, and especially to those who are of the household of the faith.”

Ephesians 2:19. “So then you are no longer strangers and aliens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and are of God’s household,”

You are Light in the Lord.

Ephesians 5:8. “for you were formerly darkness, but now you are Light in the Lord; walk as children of Light”

1 Thessalonians 5:4. “But you, brethren, are not in darkness, that the day would overtake you like a thief;”

You are united with the Father.

1 Thessalonians 1:1. “Paul and Silvanus and Timothy, To the church of the Thessalonians in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ: Grace to you and peace.”

cf Ephesians 4:6. “one God and Father of all who is over all and through all and in all.”

United with Christ

John 14:20. “In that day you will know that I am in My Father, and you in Me, and I in you.”

cf. Colossians 1:27. “to whom God willed to make known what is the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles, which is Christ in you, the hope of glory.”

A member of His body

1 Corinthians 12:13. “For by one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks, whether slaves or free, and we were all made to drink of one Spirit.”

A branch in the vine

John 15:5. “I am the vine, you are the branches; he who abides in Me and I in him, he bears much fruit, for apart from Me you can do nothing.”

A stone in the building

Ephesians 2:21,22. “in whom the whole building, being fitted together, is growing into a holy temple in the Lord, in whom you also are being built together into a dwelling of God in the Spirit.”

A part of His bride

Ephesians 5:25-27. “Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ also loved the church and gave Himself up for her, so that He might sanctify her, having cleansed her by the washing of water with the word, that He might present to Himself the church in all her glory, having no spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that she would be holy and blameless.”

A priest in His kingdom

1 Peter 2:9. “But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God’s own possession, so that you may proclaim the excellencies of Him who has called you out of darkness into His marvelous light;”

A saint of the new species

2 Corinthians 5:17. “Therefore if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creature; the old things passed away; behold, new things have come.”

United with the Holy Spirit

Romans 8:9‑11. “However, you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he does not belong to Him. If Christ is in you, though the body is dead because of sin, yet the spirit is alive because of righteousness. But if the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, He who raised Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through His Spirit who dwells in you.”

You are the recipient of the ministry of the Holy Spirit.
Born of the spirit

John 3:6. “That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.”

Baptized by the spirit

1 Corinthians 12:13. “For by one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks, whether slaves or free, and we were all made to drink of one Spirit.”

Indwelt by the spirit

John 7:39. “But this He spoke of the Spirit, whom those who believed in Him were to receive; for the Spirit was not yet given, because Jesus was not yet glorified.

Romans 5:5. “and hope does not disappoint, because the love of God has been poured out within our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was given to us.”

Romans 8:9. “However, you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he does not belong to Him.”

1 Corinthians 3:16. “Do you not know that you are a temple of God and that the Spirit of God dwells in you?”

1 Corinthians 6:19. “Or do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and that you are not your own?”

Galatians 4:6. “Because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, crying, ‘Abba! Father!'”

1 John 3:24. “The one who keeps His commandments abides in Him, and He in him. We know by this that He abides in us, by the Spirit whom He has given us.”

Sealed by the spirit

2 Corinthians 1:22. “who also sealed us and gave us the Spirit in our hearts as a pledge.”

Ephesians 4:30. “Do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, by whom you were sealed for the day of redemption.”

Recipient of spiritual gifts

1 Corinthians 12:11. “But one and the same Spirit works all these things, distributing to each one individually just as He wills.”

1 Corinthians 12:27-31. “Now you are Christ’s body, and individually members of it. And God has appointed in the church, first apostles, second prophets, third teachers, then miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, administrations, various kinds of tongues. All are not apostles, are they? All are not prophets, are they? All are not teachers, are they? All are not workers of miracles, are they? All do not have gifts of healings, do they? All do not speak with tongues, do they? All do not interpret, do they? But earnestly desire the greater gifts.”

1 Corinthians 13:1,2. “If I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, but do not have love, I have become a noisy gong or a clanging cymbal. If I have the gift of prophecy, and know all mysteries and all knowledge; and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, but do not have love, I am nothing.”

You have been glorified in Christ.

Romans 3:20. “because by the works of the Law no flesh will be justified in His sight; for through the Law comes the knowledge of sin.”

You have been made complete in Christ.

Colossians 2:10. “and in Him you have been made complete, and He is the head over all rule and authority;”

You are the possessor of every spiritual blessing.

Ephesians 1:3. “Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ,”

You are the recipient of a human spirit.

Romans 8:16. “The Spirit Himself testifies with our spirit that we are children of God,”

1 Corinthians 2:12. “Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, so that we may know the things freely given to us by God,”

2 Corinthians 7:13. “For this reason we have been comforted. And besides our comfort, we rejoiced even much more for the joy of Titus, because his spirit has been refreshed by you all.”

1 Thessalonians 5:23. “Now may the God of peace Himself sanctify you entirely; and may your spirit and soul and body be preserved complete, without blame at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.”

Ephesians 2:5. “even when we were dead in our transgressions, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved),”

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